Friday, September 17, 2010

Agenda Settings Theories

McCombs and Shaw (1972) examines the determination of the agenda in the presidential campaign in 1968 and made the hypothesis that the mass media set the agenda for each political campaigns, which affects the projection of the political issues. McCombs and Shaw use survey method and content analysis
The idea of determining the media agenda is based on the hypothesis that the mass media force attention to certain issues. Mass media to build public image of the political figures. Constant mass media to present objects that show what society should be considered by
Media agenda and the Reality
Many people believe the media as a source of reliable information, but not always the case. Reality is appointed it will then be placed by the media or referred to the placement.

According Iyengar and Zinder, media priming is the process by which focuses on some issues and not on other issues and thus change the standard that people use to evaluate prospective leaders

Dominant Issues
The prominence of issues become important factors in determining whether there is an agenda or not. So, the less direct experience held by the public about an issue, the higher the public also will depend on the media to get information. Media did not specify the public agenda for abstract issues (unintelligible).

Time Log
How long • time required for media content to have an impact on the subjective rating of the public?
• Eyal research (1980) the effective time between 4-6 weeks, time to move from the media agenda to the public agenda
• The issue of drugs: 2-5 months, the issue on local TV: 6 days

Role of Exposure
More and more individuals are open to the news media, the greater their tendency to care with five issues that get intense media coverage. The press highlighted the event becomes salient. Kind of takes the number of different issues and also different types of coverage to get attention.
These events should be given a field of meaning or be framed so easy to understand

Establishment of Agenda
The language used affects the perception of the importance of an issue. Media link events that have become the focus of attention by means of symbols that is easily understood public. Agenda formation is accelerated by displaying a character known and trustworthy.

Determination of agenda
Needs orientation, namely the relevance of issues and levels of uncertainty an issue. Determinants of the media agenda including the following:
• Effect of individual media workers
• Influence of media routines
• Influence the organization
• Influence from outside organizations (government and group interests)
• Ideology

Working media agenda
Media agenda to work among others as follows:
• Shape / layout delivery: (images, pages, number of columns)
• Accumulated time
• Influence groups
• Media that can be trusted

Second Level
Agenda is a list of things that have been prepared based on the order of importance, with the most important being in the top
The second level of agenda setting model to form the idea that an agenda is that abstract ideas and that many things other than issues could be included in a list that is used to handle the presentation of the variables, or how the issues are presented in mass media

Democracy sue media to make a meaningful determination of the agenda by identifying the key issues. Determination of the agenda serve to give a sufficient consensus on public issues to enable dialogue among groups that have different views.

Cultivation analysis
Is a theory that predicts and explains the long-term information and the establishment of perception, understanding, and beliefs about the world as a result of the consumption of media messages.

There are some assumptions about the cultivation analysis. Assumptions underlying the analysis of such cultivation as follows:
 Television in its essence and fundamental different forms with other mass media.
 Television shapes the way of thinking and make trick with our society.
 The effect of television is limited.

Cultivation Process and Product Analysis
1. The process includes four phases, namely:
 Analysis messaging system
Formulation  audience questions about social reality
 surveying audiences
 Compare the social reality of the audience heavyweight and lightweight class
2. - Mainstreaming: the tendency for heavy viewers to accept the reality of the dominant culture are similar to those shown on television, although it is actually different from the situation afterward.
- Resonance: occurs when the reality of the audience which was undertaken in accordance with the reality that is portrayed in the media.
3. World Indices cruel
The results of cultivation analysis is a cruel world index, consisting of three questions were as follows:
 Most people take care for themselves
 You can not be too careful in dealing with people
 Most people will take advantage of you if they have a chance.

Reference cultivation theories and agenda setting theories:
Griffin, EM. 2003. A First Look At Communication Theory. Singapore : MCGraw-Hill Book Co.
West, Richard. 2007. Inroducing Communication Theory, Analysis and Application. Singapore : McGraw-Hill Book Co.

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