Sunday, November 7, 2010

Conflict Motives

Everyday circumstances show that sometimes people respond to some conflicting motives to one another. For example, at one time a person has a motive to learn, but also has a motive to see the movie. In such circumstances there will be a contradiction or conflict within the person between a single motif with other motifs. So the motive of conflict that would occur if there were several objectives to be achieved simultaneously.
When individuals experience a variety of motifs there are some possible responses that can be taken, namely:
1. Selection or rejection
In the face of a variety of individual motives can take a decisive election. In the selection of an individual firm is expected to situations where the individual must provide a response (selection or rejection) of some kind of object or situation at hand. If between the various objects or situations are so obviously different from the strict selection will not be much trouble but the smaller the difference between the various objects, will be increasingly difficult individuals in making decisions, so that individuals will experience conflict.
2. Compromise
If the individual has two kinds of object or situation, the possibility that individuals can take the response is compromise, which combines both types of object. But not all objects or situations can be taken or decisions that compromise response. In the event that an individual should take this final selection or rejection of the firm.
3. Doubt doubt
If the individual is required to conduct the election or rejection between the two objects or a bad thing or good, it often arises indecision or hesitation on the individual, as if the individual swings from one poll to another pol. Individuals almost decided almost take that one, but that another party is also, until the individual feels difficult to let go. Confusion occurs because each object has a positive value or negative value, both had some beneficial aspects, but also has facets or harmful properties. Selection or rejection of the hard usually contain two kinds of properties such that, as has been stated in the problem of conflict, both contain elements of a profitable but also contain harmful elements. Suppose a young man facing election between two girls that are equally good. Both the girl caught his attention and he wanted, all have properties that are equally strong. Such a situation is what lead to indecision or hesitation on the young man. Selection of a compromise can not be retrieved. As if the boy has been swinging from one object to another object, individuals experiencing conflict.
Vacillation or hesitation generally unpleasant for the individual and sometimes confusing to evoke a sense of the psychic state of individuals experiencing barriers or distractions. This situation can be overcome by an individual to take a decision taking into consideration and thorough examination of all aspects of these objects, all profit to lose, so it may need to make a list of reasons to thereby ruling shows that the best possible decision.
But sometimes it lasts forever be in doubt until the very disturbing individual. Because it is sometimes individuals make decisions in a haphazard course, because individuals assume that the existence of a decision will be better than no decision at all.
But there is also another possibility of the individual to temporarily suspend the issue, up to individual would face in a quiet objects, individuals will be guided by his conscience in making decisions. Basis of decisions taken conscience has certain properties, namely:
a. Nature is more irrational, sometimes can not be explained with the ratio of why such decisions were taken.
b. Are subjective, the decision applies to the individual. So the possibility of some thing's decision can not be understood by others
c. In this decision which decided not mind, but out of the depths of his heart, from his conscience.

Saturday, November 6, 2010

Kind Motive

Kind Motive
As has been stated above that humans have a basic motif, which is a biological motif, which is the motive for the survival of humans as organisms. But besides humans as biological organisms, humans are social creatures. Therefore besides humans have a biological motif also has a sociological motives, namely the motive to conduct relations with other people. This motif is developed on the basis of the interaction of individuals in society.
Besides, Kuypers argued that human beings in addition to biological and sociological beings is also a theological beings. Therefore, in addition to motive biological, sociological motives, in humans also found a theological motive, that motive that encourages people to hold a relationship with God.
Besides, according Woodwoorth & marquis motif that can be distinguished:
1. Motifs associated with physical needs (organic needs), which is a motif associated with the survival of individuals or organisms, such motives to drink, eat, breathe needs, sex, needs a rest.
2. Motif emergency (emergency Motives), namely, the motive for the act of immediate-action because circumstances demand it, such as motive to remove themselves from danger, fight motive, motive to overcome obstacles, the motive to compete.
3. Motif objective (obyective Motives), namely, the motive to conduct relations with the surrounding circumstances, whether against people or objects such as motive exploration, manipulation motives, interests. Interest is the motive which turned to something special. It has been argued in advance that the individual has had an interest in something, then attention will naturally attracted to the object.
(Woodwoorth & Marquis, 1957)

Friday, November 5, 2010

Origin and Development of Motives

Crate has been put forward over the man as a living being experienced growth. These developments related to the problem of maturity (maturation), training and learning process. This also affects the existing circumstances in the individual motifs. Due to the above be noted that when an individual is born has brought impulses or certain motifs, especially the motifs associated with individual survival as an organism. Thus, this motif is natural in the sense that when an individual is born has brought certain motives. But then the motives that have brought it as a result of individual development, will experience growth as well. Thus it can be argued that there is a natural motif (naturally) which is a basic motif which is on the individual, and no motive gained through experience and learning process, namely the motives learned (learned Motives). Basic motif is a motif that closely related to motifs that are biological, which is closely related to the physical needs for survival of individuals, such as eating patterns, drinking motives, motives for fresh air, sexual motives. But with the development of the individual, the basic motive will experience the changes, according to the circumstances existing norms.

Progress And Motif kinds

As already described that the organism is motivated by something to do because the power that comes from within him that became the driving to do. Why does that man run, because there is a push from inside the person that causes it to run. Encouragement comes from within herself to do it, called motifs. For this reason, the motive force is defined as a self-contained within the organism that causes the organism to act or do. Encouragement was drawn to a particular destination. However, there are acts that are not driven by motives, which the act took place automatically. It can be stated as follows:
Broadly speaking actions that the organism can be divided in two things: the act of reflexive and conscious act.
1. The act of reflexive, ie acts that go unnoticed by the individual or the movement of an unconscious reaction to the stimulus. Reflex is a symptom konasi low level. Because is not realized, then of course act as a reaction from the stimulus received is not up to the brain as a center of consciousness so that the travel path of the stimulus until the reaction will be shorter when compared to the path traveled by the stimulus recognized by the individual. Thus the reaction of reflection can be described as follows:

Various kinds of reflexes:
a. Innate reflex: ie, inborn reflex, also called native reflexes or reflexes appropriately. This reflex is a certain way to act inborn, functions ensure his new-born creature should avoid things that are not pleasant, for example: close your eyes as opposed to a very bright light, shaking with hunger, and so forth. Such reflexes are not limited to newborns or children, in adults there as well.
b. Reflex exercise: namely reflex obtained from the experience. This reflex is not inborn, but rather the result rather than experience or act which is always repeated.
For example: bike riding skills, car driving skills. Both cyclists and auto drivers do not at any time should plan and consider motions to deflect the steering and brakes. So the occurrence of this reflex is independent of the stimulus, but are formed because of the experience.
c. Conditional reflex (conditioned-reflex)
This reflex does not depend on the nature of the original stimulus but arise because of other stimuli that do associate with the natural stimulus. So that arise associated with the natural stimulant there needs to be an intermediary, called terms. Things that may cause the association until there is a reflex called the terms or conditions.
The view of this conditional reflex experiments rely on Pavlov (Russian psychology graduate), which held a trial of this matter with the dog as an object of investigation. Conditional reflexes concerned with this, there is the flow of psychology called "reflexology"

2. The act of realizing, that the organism acts on the basis of the motives of the individuals concerned. So if the act was a conscious response from the stimulus, the stimulus to be received by the individual is to be centered, and completely realized by the individual concerned. Thus the path taken by the stimulus until the response is realized will be longer when compared with the unconscious.
The act which was originally not a motive to increase to act in that pattern. For example, if the finger touched by the fire, then the reflection, the man pulled a hand or finger from the touch of fire as a response. These actions occur by itself, happens automatically. Due to the fire because the affected finger hurt, so if people are looking for a drug that can reduce or even eliminate the pain. The act is an act of looking for drugs that have been patterned. The purpose of the act is to find drugs to reduce or eliminate the pain he suffered as a result are exposed to fire. From this example can be argued that the act which originally was not patterned, the reflection, can be increased to act in that pattern.

Thursday, November 4, 2010

Mental Ability-Related Volition (Konasi)

Understanding Willingness
Volition is one of the functions of human psychological life, can be interpreted as a psychological activity that contains an active business and is associated with the implementation of a goal. A goal is the end point of the movement that led to something direction. The goal is the implementation of a capability objectives that must be interpreted in a relationship. For example, someone who has a body, the aim is not to object, but in having that thing ", which is in the relationship (relationship), it's over. Someone who has a goal to become a scholar, with a basic will, he studied hard, although perhaps also while working. In colloquial terms, will be equated with the will and desire. The will is a function of the soul to be able to achieve something that is a strength from within and visible from the outside as the movements.
To make it easier to learn then the symptoms will be divided into:

a. Encouragement, it is an inner strength that has a specific purpose and take place outside of human consciousness. The drive is divided into 2 categories namely:
• Encouragement lust:
• encouragement of appetite,
• encouragement of sexual lust,
• encouragement of social passions, and
• encouragement to imitate lust

• Encouragement for spiritual:
• encouragement of security,
• boost self-assertive,
• encouragement to know,
• encouragement of beauty,
• encouragement goodness,
• encouragement of freedom, and
• encouragement to work.

b. Want, is motivated by sexual, directed at a particular object, or the concrete, want can become a habit practiced. Eg appetite generate the desire to eat something. While the habit is motion acts that went well and as if run by itself

c. Desire, is a particular desire that can be repeated. The characteristics of Desire is as follows:
• Desire is the "motor" driving behavior and human behavior.
• Desire is closely linked to specific objectives, both positive and negative. Achieve something positive means goods that are considered valuable or useful to him. Being negative means avoiding anything that is considered not to have price / order for him.
• Desire forever no symptoms apart from knowing (cognition) and feelings (emotions). In other words: a desire not to split up the work of another soul.
• Desire are directed to the holding of a goal

d. Tendencies, desires an active man who asked for quick action. Desires that often arises or it is called: the tendency, the same trend with inclination. The trend could lead to fundamental predilection toward something.
The trend can be divided into several groups:
1) The tendency of the vital (life), for example: voraciously, love, eat, and so fond of liquor.
2) The tendency of an individual, causing the properties of greedy, greedy, stingy, selfish.
3) Social trends, such as: friendship, brotherhood, charity and so forth.
4) Abstract tendencies, a positive example: obedience to God, honest, obedient, responsible, and so while a negative example: lie, lie and so forth.

e. Lust Lust & Eve. Lust is the encouragement contained in each human being and gives the power to act to meet the specific needs of life. Lust consists of 2 types namely:
• Individual Passion (individual), for example, appetite, passion play, lust action, destructive lust, lust fighting, power lust and so on.
• Social Lust (community), for example: lust to imitate, mating lust, passions come together with others, lust association, desire to protect, defend against lust, lust seeking knowledge, passion prostrate to God
While lust is a very strong tendency or desire and urge a little much influence a person's soul is called lust. With the emergence of sensual desire as if the others are ruled out, leaving only one desire of the ruling and move in consciousness. Besides lust characterized by:
• Feeling extremely affected and the power of thinking can be overpowered.
• Usually accompanied by the emergence of the passions that great powers.
Due to the emergence of these passions physical and spiritual life becomes chaotic and disturbed. The passions that have appeared include: gambling, lust, movies, liquor and so on.

Wednesday, November 3, 2010

Affek and Steming (Mood)

Affek and Steming (mood)
Affek a psychic event that can be interpreted as a sense of great tension and strong that arise suddenly in a short time, is not realized and is accompanied by physical symptoms that great anyway. As a result of personal affek infestation was not familiar with or do not realize the longer something done, for example: fear, anger, disgust, hatred revenge blast, love, lust and so on
While stemming is the mood that lasted a bit longer, more peaceful, more sustainable and is characterized by feelings of like or dislike and accepted as a conscious state.

Sympathy and Empathy
It is a mood which relate to other people. Sympathy is a feeling of attraction toward others that is the tendency to participate and feel everything that is being felt by others because of the attraction towards the other person (feeling with another person). Sympathy may arise because of the ideals of equality, the same suffering and so forth. While feelings of hatred towards others is referred to as the antipathy and sympathy in the form of symptoms similar to unwarranted actions, something that is logical.
Empathy is the tendency to feel something other person if he's done in the situations of others. The factors that caused it because it is driven by emotion that seems to be part of what is perceived by others (feeling into a person thing)

Some Theory of Emotion
What is the relationship between emotion with physical symptoms, namely whether the emotions that cause physical symptoms that cause emotions. Of this there is an opinion contrary to other opinions. These opinions are often known by the theories of emotion, namely:
1. The central theory
According to this theory or opinion is the result of physical symptoms of emotion experienced by the individual, so individuals experience emotions first and then experienced changes in the physical. Because of that theory or opinion is known as a central theory, put forward by Cannon. So based on this theory can be argued that physical symptoms are the result of emotions experienced by the individual.
2. Perifir theory
According to an opinion or theory is just the opposite. Physical symptoms are not the result of emotions experienced by individuals, but rather the emotions experienced by individuals is the result of physical symptoms. According to this theory people do not cry because it is difficult, but otherwise he was difficult because of crying. This theory was put forward by James, who at the same time also put forward by Lange. Therefore, this theory is often known as James-Lange theory of emotion, which are often called the paradox of James. While experts conduct experiments to test the extent to which the truth of James-Lange theory, among others Sherrington and Cannon, which generally indicates that what was raised by James is not right. James-Lange theory is more focused on things that are perifir than the central character. (Woodworth & Marquis, 1957)
3. Personality theory
opinion or theory is that emotion is a personal activity, where this person can not be split apart in the physical and psychic as a separate substance. Therefore, the emotion involves the physical changes such as what was raised by J. Linchoten.

Tuesday, November 2, 2010

Kinds of feelings

In everyday life often heard of feeling high and feeling low. This situation shows that there is a classification of feelings.
Max Scheler argues that there are 4 kinds of levels in the sense, namely:
1) Feelings of sensory level
This feeling is a feeling based on the awareness related to the physical stimulus, such as pain, heat, cold.
2) Feelings of vital life
This feeling is entirely dependent on physical, such as taste fresh, tired, and so forth.
3) Feelings of psychiatric
This feeling is a feeling like the feeling of joy, grief, fear.
4) Feelings of personality
This feeling is a feeling associated with the whole person, such as feelings of self-esteem, feelings of hopelessness, feeling satisfied. (Bigot, et al., 1950)

Besides, Kohnstamm give a feeling of classification as follows:
1) Feelings senses
This feeling is a feeling associated with sensory devices, such as feelings associated with taste, eg sour, salty, bitter, sweet; related to smell and so forth. Also included in this case feelings of hunger, thirst, pain, fatigue and so forth.
2) feelings of psychological
In this class feeling is still distinguished by:
a. Intellectual Feelings
This feeling is a kind of feeling that arises or accompany an intellectual feeling, that feeling that arises when people can solve a problem, or get new things out of the work of the intellectual aspect. This feeling can also be a driver or to motivate individuals in the act, and this feeling can also be a motivation in the field of science. People will feel happy and satisfied when it can get an opinion or a new theory in the field of science. Children will also feel happy and satisfied, for example if he could solve the problem according to their size calculation that is a matter that is quite heavy. The feeling that arises is related to the intellectual aspect.
b. Feelings of decency
These feelings arise when people experience things that are good or bad according to the norms of decency. Good things will lead to positive feelings, while the bad things that will cause negative feelings. So people will experience positive feelings when he was doing good, so instead he will experience negative feelings if you do bad.
c. Feelings Beauty
These feelings arise when people observe something beautiful or ugly. The beautiful generate positive feelings, the ugly cause negative feelings.
d. Community feeling
This feeling arises with relations with others. If people follow the positions of others, the feelings that accompany it. Feelings can be a variety of pattern, such as hate or antipathy, pleasure or sympathy. Feeling happy is a positive feeling, hatred is a negative feeling. The feeling of nationality is a feeling of community as well.
e. Feelings of Self-Esteem
This feeling is a feeling that accompanies self esteem. These feelings can be positive, that arise when people get respect for himself. These feelings can rise to feelings of self-esteem more. But these feelings can also be negative, which is when people get disappointed. This can cause lack of self esteem. Feelings of self esteem further pared by Alfred Adler, as a character in individual psychology.
f. Feelings Into deity.
This feeling accompanies the belief in God that has the properties of the all perfect. Feelings believe this will bring someone to do good, do pious. Feeling the Godhead is the highest or innermost feelings. Human actions are noble and holy is centered on the feeling to this deity. And the high feelings in the deity does not depend on one's abilities or skills. With the feeling to the deity of all things will be drawn to Him.