|John Cacioppo and Richard Petty|
Elaboration likelihood model is a theory put forward by Richard Petty and John Cacioppo. This theory provides an effective way to persuade someone or cause changes in attitude or behavior. This theory is talking about the cognitive processes performed by humans in interpreting the message. How to categorize people to interpret the message from a process of communication they receive. To then determine the attitudes and take action.
Elaboration likelihood model describes the mental attitude of humans in processing the messages they received in the communication process, how a person focus on the message and the attributes contained in it.
This theory is based on the paradigm of positivism, which the researchers use quantitative methods that use survey and analysis in developing this theory. Based on the assumption that there is, then this theory to analyze the existing sections to understand the whole of its parts. Elaboration likelihood model is a theory that includes the perspective of an objective which is used to understand, explain, and predict human behavior. Petty and Cacioppo assume that humans will tend to hold on to the correct attitude to life. Sometimes it does not seem logical, but in reality we are always trying to find the truth.
Of the four issues contained in the epistemology, Elaboration likelihood Model including the knowledge gained after the experience. The point is, this theory emerged after the research and observations in the survey and analysis of existing realities in society.
This theory includes the theory of absolutism, because this theory was formed based on a survey done in the community. Consist of quantitative data and calculation of exact science. So that the deficiencies in this theory due to the emergence of new phenomena today. Not because of wrong theories that have been established. ELM including rationalism theory which views human beings as objects of research.
ELM is a theory that describes the character of man as a reactor that makes a stimulus with the intention of making changes in attitudes and behavior. This theory describes the process of persuasive for interpreting a message, how much work is done to influence others in their affective and personal so interested in the issues discussed and also how the message recipient to think about the contents and truth of the issue receives.
This theory states that communication between people is a process whereby each person receive, transmit, interpret and conclude a message with stimulant. When someone has shown a tendency to think about the contents of the message, then the next issue is whether they can respond to the contents of the message. We would find it difficult to persuade people around him when things do not support or that person is not ready to receive the messages we convey. From this theory can be seen that human beings are controlled by the state. In the process, this theory led to changes in attitudes that are permanent and long, sovereign, when observed from the central route.
Elaboration likelihood model is the theory that value free. This theory is intended to reveal what it is, in accordance with the existing facts about the incident. A communicant must be able to convey his message with the most effective manner. ELM can be classified as classical science because this theory is intended to uncover the facts are.
An activity to evaluate and verify the message. In this case, that process occurs when a person thinks about an argument she was on about in persuasive communication.
2. Central Route
Is the main point in interpreting the message. At this point, the processing of messages requires great mental effort because the audience did elaboration of the received message.
Three. Peripheral Route
Offers a shortcut to accept or reject a message. In this pathway, the recipient of the message does not require such precision in the central route, because they only accept and reject the message without looking at the attribute or other purposes which are also contained in the message. Audience only depends on a number of cues that allow them to make decisions in a short time.
There are six signals that trigger the use of peripheral route, include the following:
a. Reciprocation: There is a feeling indebted to persuade people.
b. Consistency: There is a feeling that what is common to be persuaded.
c. Social Proof: There is evidence to be persuaded because the message has been carried out by the crowd.
d. Liking: We liked the ideas we persuade people.
e. Authority: There's interest to persuade the power of the people so as not to bias the choice.
f Scarcity: There is concern that the offer does not come twice.