Wednesday, September 29, 2010

Social Learning Theories

Albert Bandura
A. Bandura proposed social learning theory emphasizes that environmental conditions can provide and maintain certain responses in a person. The basic assumption of this theory is largely derived from the individual behavior through observational learning outcomes of the behavior displayed by other individuals who became a model.
Bandura also states that people learn many behaviors through imitation, even without reinforcement [reinforcement] even though they received. We can mimic some behaviors only through observation of model behavior and the resulting effect of these models. This kind of learning process called observational learning or learning through observation. During the course of observational learning, someone tried to do the behavior he saw and reinforcement / punishment serves as a source of information for someone about their behavior.
Social Learning Theories to explain how a person's personality is developed through a process of observation, in which people learn through observation or observing the behavior of others, especially leaders or persons who are regarded as having more value than others. The term is well known in social learning theory is modeling [imitation].
Modeling is more than just imitation or repeating the behavior but the model and modeling involves the addition or subtraction of the observed behavior, as well as observations generalize observations involve cognitive processes. Modelling carried out through four processes, namely: attention, representation, imitation behavior, and motivation and reinforcement.
Attention is influenced by association with those observers who observed [model]. The nature of the model, and the significance of the observed behavior. Representation means that the behavior will be imitated is symbolized in the memory. In imitation of behavior, the observer must have the ability to mimic the observed behavior of the model. This modeling can be effective if people are watching has a high motivation to imitate the observed figures.
One important concept presented Bandura is the reciprocal determinism, a person will behave in a situation that he was select actively. In analyzing the behavior of someone, there are three components that should be reviewed is the individual [P: Person], environmental [E: Environment], as well as the individuals behavior [B: Behavior]. Individuals will bring up a form of the same behavior despite similar environments, but the individual will act after a process of cognition or assessment of the environmental stimulus that will be followed up.
Bandura states that cognition is as an intermediary behavior in which our self-perception affects behavior.
Self Efficacy is a person's perception about his ability in the face of a situation. Two components of self efficacy are:
1. Outcome Expectations
Are estimates of individuals that a particular outcome will occur and knowledge about what to do.
2. Efficacy Expectations
It is the belief that he could do it or not. Emphasized that self efficacy is very influential in behavior. Any behavior, could the behavior at work, academia, recreation, social efficacy is influenced by the self. Expectancy is the cognitive variables in the relationship between stimulus and response. Outcome expectancy is the anticipation of a systematic relationship between events or objects in a situation. The form is the "if-then" between behavior and outcome. Failure of an event followed the form of "if-then" that existed in the mindset of individuals, so if the expectations of individuals are too high and can not be achieved, these individuals will be more prone to disruption because of the inconvenience he experienced.
Self regulation is the ability of individuals to regulate their own behavior and assessment of the internal standard for himself. This concept explains why humans can maintain their behavior despite the absence of rewards that come from the external environment. This concept can not be run without internal standards of a person.
Internal standards is thought to come from the influence of previous modeling and a variety of reinforcement ago. Given the meaning of certain phenomena that he thinks is good or valuable, then these values become the benchmark of internal values the individual. The higher a person internal standard, the greater hope for achieving this value and the greater the likelihood the individual is experiencing disturbances.

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