Monday, September 27, 2010

Uses, Gratification and Dependency

Uses, gratification and dependency based on research results from Elihu Katz, Jay. Blumler and Michael Gurevitch. This theory is a theory which states that people actively seek out specific media and content (content) to produce the satisfaction of certain (or any) specific.

Mass Society Theory states that the average person is helpless victims of the mass media, to define the relationship between the audience and the media they consume.

Then, Theory of Mass Society was replaced by what we now refer to as "Limited Influence Theory" (limited effect) which is the conception of media influence is limited by certain aspects of personal and social life of members of the audience. There are two approaches on the orientation of limited influence, first, the individual differences perspective (individual differences perspective), which saw the power of the media shaped by personal factors like intelligence and self-esteem. Examples of smart people and people who established the one who is able to defend themselves against the unwanted effects of the media. Limited influence of the latter, the model of social categories (social categories model) who saw the power of media is limited by the audience member associations and affiliated groups. For example, the republican party tends to spend time with people of other republics, which help them interpret media messages consistently, according to the way a republic.

Stages in the research uses and gratifications
• Herta Herzog (1944) began the early stages of research uses and gratification by trying to divide the reasons people do different forms of media behavior such as reading newspapers and listening to the radio.
• Phase two of the uses and gratifications research began when researchers began creating a typology which represents all the reasons people have for using the media.
• The third stage and most recently, uses and gratifications researchers interested in linking specific reasons for media use by variables such as needs, goals, benefits, and consequences of using the media, and individual factors. Rubin and Steph to investigate the relationship of motivation, interpersonal attraction, and parasosial interaction, we think the relationship we have with the people who we know is only through the media.

Assumptions of uses and gratification theory
 The public plays an active and goal-oriented media usage.
 initiative in linking the needs of specific media choices have on members of the audience.
 Media compete with other sources for the satisfaction of needs.
 People will have enough self-awareness of their media use, interest and motive in order to provide an accurate picture about the usefulness to researchers.
 Assessment of the value of media content can only be judged by the audience.

Active audience
The theory is based on the assumption that media consumers are active should explain what is said as "active audience."

Jay G. Blumer (1979) also offers some suggestions of activities can be carried out by the audience of media consumers. These include the usefulness (utility) to use the media to accomplish specific tasks. Intention (intentionality) occurs when the motivation of people to determine their consumption of media content. Selectivity, namely that the audience uses the media to reflect their reference interest. The difficulty to affect states that audience to form their own understanding of content and that affects the meaning of what they think and do.

Uses and gratification also distinguish between activity and liveliness to better understand levels of audiences activities. Activity (activity) is more referring to what is being done by the consumers of media. While the liveliness (activeness) is closer to what is right - right researchers interested in the uses and gratification, freedom and autonomy of the public in situations of mass communication.

Media influence
 social situation can produce tensions and conflicts, led to pressure to alleviate this through media consumption.
 social situations can generate awareness of the issues that require attention, information about what can be found in the media.
 social situation may undermine the real life opportunity to satisfy certain requirements, and the media can be a substitute or supplement.
 social situation often led to a particular value, and affirmation as well as their emphasis can be facilitated by the consumption of media related materials.
 social situation demands friendliness with the media; these demands must be met to maintain membership in a particular social group.

Functionality and Gratuity and New Media
The question for researchers is whether the Uses and Gratification motivation that brought people to use their old media would apply to new media. Theorists interested in finding new media and experiences that change the message so the theory of uses and gratification is no longer applicable or should be radically modified. Access to new technologies change and expand our capabilities for acquisition of information and entertainment, and media researchers requiring a deeper understanding about personal and social reasons people have for using new media.
The findings on social interaction in particular is interesting because this kind of game is often assumed as something isolated and less social presence. Sherry and colleagues, found that teenagers play video games with his friend and saw this game as a time to gather and connect with other people.

Reference the effect tradition and uses, gratification & dependency:
Littlejohn, Stephen W and Karen A.Foss. 2008. Theories of Human Communication. USA : Thomson Wadsworth

West, Richard. 2007. Inroducing Communication Theory, Analysis and Application. Singapore : McGraw-Hill Book Co.

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