Saturday, October 2, 2010

Social Penetration Theory (Based on the Research Daltman Irwin and Dalmas Taylor)

To understand the proximity relationship between two people, Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor [1973] concept a Penetration Theory Social [Social Penetration Theory-SPT]. Both made extensive studies in an area of social ties on various types of couples. Their theory describes a pattern of relationship development, a process which they identify as social penetration. Social penetration [social penetration] refers to a bonding process in which the relationship of individuals to move from superficial communication toward a more intimate communication.
Altman and Taylor believed that the relationship of people vary greatly in their social penetration. These authors stated that the relationship follows a route [trajectory], or the path to intimacy. Furthermore, they say that the relationship is regular and predictable in its development. Because the relationship is something important and "already exists in the heart of our humanity" [Rogers & Escudero, 2004, pp. 3], The Social Penetration theorist trying to decipher the complexity and predictability of the continuing of a relationship.
Preliminary discussions regarding the Social Penetration Theory began in the 1960s and 1970s era in which open up and speak frankly regarded as an important strategic relationship. Now, researchers have recognized that cultures vary in respect of openness as a skill in dealing, and some question the culture of the early enthusiasm for openness in general relationship [Stafford, 2003].

Assumption of Social Penetration Theory
Assumptions that drive returns, among others:
• These relationships do not progress from an intimate be intimate.
• In general, the development of systematic and predictable relationship.
• The development of the relationship include depenetration[withdrawal] and dissolution.
• Opening of the self is the core of the development of relationships.

First, the relationship of communication between the people began in superficial stages and moves on a continuum towards a more intimate stage. However, not all relationships are located at both extremes are not intimate and intimate. Even many of our relationships lies at a point between the two poles.
The second assumption of the Social Penetration Theory related to predictability. In particular, the penetration of social theorists argue that the relationships developed in a systematic and predictable. Some people may have difficulties to accept this claim. Relationship-as-communication process is dynamic and constantly changing, but even a dynamic relationship and follow the standard pattern of development is acceptable.
The third assumption related tax returns with the expectation that developments include depenetration and relationship dissolution. At first, the second this might sound weird. So far we have discussed the intersection of a relationship. However, the relationship can be messy, or withdraw [depenetrate], and this setback could lead to dissolution of relationships. If a relationship has depenetration, it does not mean that the relationship will automatically be lost or expired. Often times, a relationship will experience transgressions [transgression], or violations of rules, implementation, and expectations in touch. This transgression may seem can be solved and often it is. In fact, Tara Emmers-Sommer [2003] stated that various transgressions relationships can assist in the failure of a relationship.
Last assumption states that the opening itself is the essence of the development of relationships. Opening myself [self-disclosure] can be generally defined as the process of opening information about yourself to others who have a goal. Typically, the information is in the opening itself is the information significant. According to Altman and Taylor [1973], intimate relationships that are not moving toward an intimate relationship because of the self-disclosure. This process allows people to know each other in a relationship. Opening ourselves to help shape the relationship of the present and future between the two men, and "make yourself open to others who provide intrinsic satisfaction."
Finally, we must see that the opening of the self can be both strategic and non-strategic. Researchers have used the term, "the phenomenon of foreigners in the train [Strangers-on-the-train]" [or in the plane or bus] to refer to the time when people disclose information on a complete stranger in public areas.

"Peeling" Layer Connection: Onion Analogy
In disguising of SPT, Altman and Taylor put onion skin structure. The outermost layer is the public image of [the public image of] a person, or which can be seen directly. Reciprocity [reciprocity] or process in which the openness of others will lead others to open, is the main component of the Social Penetration Theory. Penetration can be viewed by using two dimensions: breadth and depth. Breadth refers to the various topics discussed in a relationship. Vastness of time associated with the amount of time spent by couples in communicating with each other on various topics. Depth refers to the degree of intimacy that directs the discussion into a topic.
Several important conclusions to be noted about the breadth and depth of the opening of the self. First, shifts or changes in the central layer of [the onion] have more influence than those in the outer layer. Second, the greater the depth, the more opportunity for someone to feel vulnerable.

Social exchange: Costs and Benefits of touch
Taylor and Altman [1987] argues that the relationship can be conceptualized in the form of respect and sacrifice. The award is all kind of events or relationship behaviors that drive satisfaction, pleasure, and happiness in the pairs, while the sacrifices are all related events or behaviors that encourage the emergence of negative feelings. Valuation ratios awards / sacrifice [of reward / cost ratio] is defined as the relationship experience that the balance between positive and negative.

Stages of the Social Penetration Process
The earliest stage of interaction, referred to as the orientation phase, occurred on a public level, only a little about ourselves open to others. Orientation phase is the social penetration levels that include the opening of a little part of us.
The fourth and final stage, exchange stability, achieved in a few relationships. Stage of stable exchange associated with the disclosure of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that lead to the emergence of openly spontaneity and uniqueness of the relationship is high.

2 komentar:

kpadaku said...

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supri said...

done friends, nice article and Haven nice day

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