Thursday, October 14, 2010

Human conception & behavior

A. Man according to the flow of psychoanalysis 
Man according to the flow which was pioneered by Sigmund Freud is being driven by a desire buried deep in his soul (homo Volens). Psychoanalyst flow explicitly consider the structure of the human soul, this genre is the focus of the totality of human personality rather than separate parts.
According to this flow, human behavior is considered as the result of interaction of sub-systems in the human personality, namely:
a. Id, which is part of a personality that keep our biological impulses is the center of instinct that moves based on the principle of pleasure and tended to their needs. Is selfish, immoral and do not want to know the reality. Id is the animal nature that consists of two parts:
i). Libido - reproductive instinct energy supply base for activities - activities constructive also called the life instinct (Eros) 
ii). Thanatos - destructive and aggressive instincts
b. Ego, serves to bridge the demands of Id with reality in the outside world. Ego is the mediator between animal desires with the demands of rational and realistic. Ego that cause human and animal able to subdue the desire to live as rational beings. He moves based on the principle of reality
c. Super ego, namely the elements into the police personality, represents something normative or ideal super-ego is also called a conscience, is the internalization of social norms and culture community. Super ego ego force to suppress the desires that are not different under consciousness.
From the foregoing it is according to psychoanalyst is human behavior is an interaction between biological components / elements of animal origin (id), the psychological components / elements of the rational mind (ego) and components of social / moral element (super ego).

B. Man according to the flow of behaviorism
Man according to this flow is homo mechanicus or behavior-driven environment. Humans learn to behave as a result of the change in behavior due to the influence of the environment. From here arises "learning theory" and the theory of "tabula rasa". Man in the theory is regarded as a white paper or wax desk when the human meaning of birth has no "mental colors". In the development that causes mental changes and increased color is the experience. In brief, the flow stresses that human behavior, human personality, and temperament are based on sensory experience (sensory experience).
The concept of human behavior over by one of these flow figures Ivan Pavlov perfected by a method called classic common. In this method caused by human behavior or conditioned stimuli that are neutral with no conditioned stimuli. The hypothesis suggests that the organism can be taught to act by giving something stimuli. To illustrate this method by Pavlov conducted experiments with a dog that is conditioned to certain stimuli. In the end it was found in experiments that when the dog saw the former animal food then spit it out as 'learning outcomes' former associate food with food that will be given later. For example illustrates that each time a child reads a magazine and her parents took it by force magazine then they will hate against the magazine. 

The concept of human behavior is then refined by Skinner with a method called operand conditioning (operand common). 
This method is explained that if organism produce something a response because of the stimulus received passes nearby. According to Skinner, operand common composed than the two main concepts, namely:
a) Confirmation (reinforcement) that are divided into positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement.
• Confirmation of Positive (Positive Reinforcement)
Stimulus repetition can add a behavior and done many times referred to as the Confirmation of Positive.
Example: Workers who achieve high performance in its work is given a bonus. So he will improve its performance in the next period
• Confirmation of Negative (Negative Reinforcement)
If there is a stimulus that hurt or who realize things are not wearing and be avoided in many times referred to as negative reinforcement. Organism possibility of repeat behavior that can circumvent or reduce the negative circumstances.
b) The fine (punishment)
Is Any stimulus that causes the repetition of a response to behavior that reduced or eliminated altogether. Example: Children who do not help the mother was not given the opportunity to play football with his friends that he would eliminate behaviors that could make him unable to play football again.

Human behavior according to this flow is strengthened with Social Learning Theory or Social learning. This theory has been suggested by Albert Bandura as saying one of human nature is to mimic (imitate) the behavior or actions of others received by the community (socially accepted behavior) as well as behavior that is not accepted by society. Behavior is acceptable and not acceptable in the form:
a) different from one culture with one another culture,
b) vary between individuals,
c) vary according to circumstances.
Thus, social learning involves studying the behavior not only received but also the behavior is not acceptable.

Why Humans Mimic?
People mimic because what is done to bring satisfaction or reward, that is affirmation. How true affirmation consists of 3 types: 
a. Directly affirmation - Individuals being rewarded as he mimics something because praise behavior is concerned. For example children who imitate the behavior of his father because he is praised and repeat the behavior.
b. Independent confirmation - Individuals imitate not want to be praised but because wanted to achieve his goal alone, for example a student mimics the way Edwin Moses (American athlete ran; breaking the world record) in the run, he did it not to be praised by his coach but to prove to himself that he too can run exactly the same as Edwin Moses and this gives him satisfaction.
eg. A fellow student noticed was praised by his teacher for completing tasks quickly then it might at other times he would do so because he thinks will receive the same praise.

C. Man according to the flow of cognitive psychology
Man in the conception of cognitive psychology is an active creature organize and process the stimuli it receives (homo sapiens). This means that humans are creatures who think and not passive in responding to their environment and try learn environment. More specifically that human beings are active organisms interpret and even distort their environment.
The logic of human behavior according to this flow is that the human soul is actively interprets sensory experience through the process of creating, organizing, interpreting, and seek to distort the meaning. So the men that determines the meaning of stimuli and not the stimuli itself.
Several theories of behavior according to this flow is the theory of Kurt Lewin who said that human behavior is not just a response to the stimulus but rather the product of shared styles that influence it spontaneously. The style is by Lewin formulated in the B = f (P. E). Behavior is the result of interaction between Persons (person) with the Environment (psychological environment).
Another theory of this school say that man is a seeker of cognitive consistency (consistency seeker). Humans are creatures who preserve constancy in belief systems and between belief systems and behavior. This assumption gave birth to the theory called cognitive dissonance premises means the man will be looking for information that reduce the dissonance (the incompatibility between two cognition). Man if met with a dissonant information with confidence so he would refuse, question the source, search consonant or change it.

D. Man according to the flow of humanistic psychology 
Man according to the conception of humanistic psychology is a natural active beings formulate strategies with transactional environment (homo ludens). On the assumption that this flow of human life is deemed to be in the world (in the form of the I (I), me (me), my self (myself)) and interpreted perceived subjectively. Human behavior based on the concept itself of human perception about the identity of her that is flexible and changeable. In addition, human behavior is also based on the needs in function to maintain, enhance and actualize himself. 

2 komentar:

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