Saturday, September 18, 2010

Muted Group Theory

Cheris Kramarae
Muted group theory was introduced by Cheris Kramarae. He states that language is the construction men. Based on the research Kramarae, language in certain culture does not treat everyone equally, and not all people contribute to balanced against the creation of the language. Women (and groups of subordinated others) are not as freely and had broad access as men in expressing what they want, when and where they want it, because words and norm used is basically shaped by the dominant group, is the man himself.

According Kramarae, women are often not taken into account in our society. The thought of women not considered at all. And when the women tried to voice this inequality, which is controlled by the communication control masculine tend to not understand the benefit of women. And language that are created by men "are created with pretentious, does not appreciate and negate women." She thus became the group that silenced (muted group).

The idea that women are a people silenced (muted group) was first expressed by Edwin Ardener. According to him, in many cultural studies position and voice of women is not written in the culture. Until it was realized that silenced women is due to low or at least the power or strength possessed by them in the hierarchy of their group. Because the position is low, they have difficulties when they wanted to make a sound. According Ardener, "structures that 'silence' actually exist but are not recognized in the structure of the dominant language." Until the end 'structure' is not visible, become invisible.

Muted group theory does not merely describe that is 'silenced' always means no sound. Silenced groups does not mean they do not speak at all or was silent, it is suggested by Shirkey Ardener. The main focus Muted group theory is that if someone or a group can articulate what they want, when and where, at will they, or do they have to 'change the thinking or what they wish voiced last as long as they remain acceptable in social environment. 'When a person change what they want to say just to not feel isolated by their social environment, then the person is included in the group who silenced.
Cheris Kramarae (in Sendjaja: 1994) put forward the basic assumptions of this theory as follows:
• Women respond to the world differently from men because of the experiences and activities different from that rooted in the division of labor.
• Because of its political domination, male perception of the system becomes more dominant, inhibit the free expression of alternative thinking women.
• To be able to participate in society, women must change their perspective into the system of expression that is acceptable to men.
Kramarae raised a number of hypotheses regarding the communication of women based on some research findings are as follows:
a. Women more difficulties in expressing themselves than men.
b. Women are more easily understand the meaning of men than men to understand the meaning of women.
c. Women have devised ways of expression itself outside the system of male dominance.
d. Women tend to express more dissatisfaction about communication than men.
e. Women are often trying to change the rules of communication are dominant in order to avoid or oppose the rules of conventional.
f. Traditionally women less to produce new words are popular in society at large; consequently, they were not considered to have contributed to the language.
g. Women have a different conception of the humorous man.

1 komentar:

Anonymous said...

Nice post.. I'll wait your new post friend..

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