Wednesday, October 13, 2010

Psychology and Communication

Psychology and Communication
Psychology Relationships and communication
The relationship between psychology and communication can be seen two aspects, namely;
1. Historically:
a. Indeed the science of psychology is the root of communication, in addition to sociology, anthropology, and philosophy.
b. Founding fathers of science communication is also composed of scholars like Wilbur schraam psychology, Kurt Lewin, Paul Lazarfeld and Carl I Hovland.
2. In scientific taxonomy
Communication is an instrument or a part of social psychology as a means of meeting the needs encouragement to relate to others.
Even so communication is not a sub-discipline of psychology, what is the subject of study in communication are also studied in psychology.
Communication psychology approach
Psychology looked at communication with the broader meaning that includes the delivery of energy to the brain, sensory organs, the process of mutual influence between the various systems of organisms and between organisms. Therefore, when communication is defined via the approach / perspective understanding of psychology will be obtained as follows:

"The process by which an individual transmit the stimuli to modify the behavior of other individuals" (Hovland & Janis)
(Psychology is an individual process of delivering the stimulus for change / influence the behavior of another individual)

According to Aubrey Fisher, there are four approaches to the psychology of communication that includes 4 stages namely:
a. Acceptance by sensory stimuli (sensory reception of stimuli)
b. The process that mediate stimuli and responses (internal mediation of stimuli)
c. Prediction of response (Predictions of response)
d. Confirmation of response (reinforcement of response)

Psychology subjected see communication from the human senses by the stimuli (in the form of messages, sounds, colors, etc.). Stimuli are processed in the soul that is not visible (tangible). The conclusion of the process in the soul is contained in the responses appear. Response to the past can be used to predict future responses. If the response occurs repeatedly and the same then this is called reassurance.

Meanwhile, according Barlund is meant by communication in the context of psychology and human consciousness is to act in response to motor nerve endings that can obtain and change a stimulus.
Psychological approaches to the communication consists of 3 assumptions include:
a. The first assumption: human subjectivity are freely in the field of stimulus they receive and that they produce. The emphasis of this assumption emphasizes that human behavior in communicating the result of receiving a stimulus. This theory emphasizes the simple formula S - R (stimulus response)
b. Assumption a second that anyone can modify any stimulus it receives. Human behavior in the original communication was described as something as simple S - R, but the actual response is also modified by the organism (O) which is actively processing the stimulus came. The formulation of the assumption here is that the S - O - R
c. The third assumption that the perception that comes along with the stimulus is selectively accepted by the organism to make a choice on what needs to be responded to due to the choice of a perceived stimulus. This occurs because people aware of the differences receipt consequences if the response is different also. Emphasis on the third assumption here is oriented to the S - O - R - C (consequence)

Use of communication psychology
The use of communication psychology aimed to achieve effective communication. Communication is an activity to achieve the unity of meaning, while men who do the communication consists of many backgrounds experience different fields including mental background. Hence why the psychology of communication becomes important applications in the communication. What is meant by effective communication by Stewart L. Tubbs and Sylvia Moss include:
a. sense: it is a thorough acceptance of the contents of stimuli as intended by the communicator.
b. Fun is not just essentially communication and information delivery only form of mutual understanding, but communication is also intended to get warmth in interaction with information or messages that please others.
c. Affecting attitudes: main domain is in fact the communication process affect attitudes of others, to be able to influence others, we need a psychological approach in the form of emotional appeals, this can be done if the communication psychological approach.
d. A good social relations: communications intended for the creation of more good social relations. In the context of association and association (inclusion) will require communication to be able to strengthen relationships between members of the group. In the context of the wish to master and controlled (control), then the need for good communication, children want to be controlled and controlled by the parent and the parents want to control their child if realized through communication. Meanwhile, in the context of the affection that is to be loved and love communication is absolutely necessary for those needs can be revealed.
e. Action: influence others can succeed if the person is doing real action like what was in want and this is the last indicator in addition to the four items noted above. The action is the accumulation of process communication and this requires knowledge of the mechanism of psychological factors that influence one's actions.

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